Teresa of Ávila also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, was a Spanish noblewoman who was called to convent life. A Carmelite nun, prominent Spanish mystic, religious reformer, author, theologian of the contemplative life and of mental prayer, she earned the rare distinction of being declared a Doctor of the Church, but not until over four centuries after her death. She reformed the Carmelite Orders of both women and men. The movement she initiated was later joined by the younger Spanish Carmelite friar and mystic John of the Cross. It led eventually to the establishment of the Discalced Carmelites. A formal papal decree adopting the split from the old order was issued in 1580. Patron Saint of of Headache sufferers, and Spanish Catholic Writers. Feast day October 15th.